Thursday, February 20, 2020

Organizational Culture in Daimler-Chrysler Essay

Organizational Culture in Daimler-Chrysler - Essay Example The company that is the subject of this research is Daimler-Chrysler as one of the biggest automakers in the world. The aim of the company is to maintain the level of service and product quality and develop strategies to improve their product/services. Today, Daimler-Chrysler is affected by different factors of the environment which have a great influence upon it. Most companies find it no simple matter to formulate and implement socially responsible actions and programs. To operate without major disruptions, a company must at all times be in compliance with legal requirements international, state, and local. It must develop, establish, implement, and police a code of ethical and moral conduct for all members of its organization. Healthy organizational culture is one of the crucial elements which help Daimler-Chrysler to compete on the global scale and sustain its strong position in the automotive market. Maintenance of high standards is a key factor which influences company’s performance. The purpose of maintenance of high standards is to attempt to maximize the performance of service by ensuring that it performs regularly and efficiently. There are numerous quality circles within Daimler-Chrysler and their work is monitored and co-coordinated by the company management, who is responsible for estab ­lishing overall objectives and monitoring the progress towards the achievement of these objectives. In Daimler-Chrysler, the main functions of management are to plan, organize, coordinate and control all activities within the organization. Attention to HR helps Daimler-Chrysler improve the efficiency and productivity. Manage ­ment skills are transferable, and managers successfully apply their knowl ­edge and skill in a wide variety of organizations. In Daimler-Chrysler, managers have the responsibility in the organization and also held accountable for the work of others as well as their own. Their role is to coordinate and control other members of staf f accordingly with organizational objectives.

Saturday, February 8, 2020

EIGEN Anallysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

EIGEN Anallysis - Essay Example Eigen value measures potency of axis, quantity of deviation down an axis, and preferably the significance of environmental incline. Eventual accurate implications depend on ordination technique employed. Eigen analysis methods include RDA, DCA, CCA, PCA, and DCCA. Added Eigen values are comparable to greatest variation or correspondence distinctively related with the models. By means of gathering, Eigen values are further divided into constituent roots allocated to every eigenvector. Summation of all components Eigen values equals the computation of the outline of the origin covariance matrix. The number of scores of optimistic constituent of latent values of correlation matrix is directly proportional to the autonomous dimensions of deviation in the same data. Measured variables are equivalent to the positive latent values. Regular matrices that entail covariance and correlation matrices constantly create real number of latent values while non-symmetric matrices produce complex-numb er latent values. Latent values may be thought as ellipsoid model due to set of invariable scalars coupled with the Eigen vector while showing the quantity of variation represented in combining with the initial dimensions. Latent values are the measurement lengthwise of the ellipsoid model's main and trivial axes (Ramamurty 58-61). Eigen has a number of advantages ranging from its quick capability, versatility, elegance, reliability, and good complier support. Eigen allows for explicit factorization with polished contingency to non-factorized code and totally optimizes fixed-sized matrices by avoiding dynamic memory allocation unrolling loops when possible. In addition, Eigen is meticulously accessed via its own analysis set algorithms are cautiously chosen for consistency purposes by evidently documenting reliability substitutions. Eigen further supports every matrix magnitude such as sparse, huge intense, and small sized matrices in addition to all standard numeric types such as s tandard composite, integers and easily extensible numeric types. Ability of Eigen to support various functions also extends to capability of carrying out matrix disintegration and geometry characteristics. Additionally, Eigen is very elegant thus making it easy to implement an algorithm on it and has incredibly a good complier support that guarantees its reliability around any complier bugs at a sensible compilation times (Ramamurty 176). Disintegration of a covariance, correlation matrix into Eigen vectors and Eigen values has hugely assisted in many aspects of life as it is applied in the daily life situations. For instance, Eigen analysis is used in buckling analysis by setting buckling mode shape in the process called classical Euler buckling analysis. This is done by predicting the hypothetical crumpling power of an ultimate expandable formation. It calculates the Eigen values of makeup by considering the structure’s loading and restraints. Buckling weights of numerous a rrangements are enthusiastically accessible from solutions put in charts. In addition, mechanical engineers use nonlinear buckling analysis in foretelling thus permitting the modeling geometric deficiency, loads perturbations, material nonlinearity, and gap to initiate desired buckling mode. Eigenvectors and their matrices ensure venture in structure

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The Principle Of Equality In The Egyptian Constitution Essay

The Principle Of Equality In The Egyptian Constitution - Essay Example Resignation of sovereignty by the people to the government was not, in other words, to be interpreted as the people's having permanently giving up their sovereignty or their having done so unconditionally. Indeed, the very concept of the social contract emphasizes the sovereign rights of the people, acknowledges that a sovereign people have given a certain person, the ruler, their consent to govern over them in exchange for his protection of their rights and liberties, among other things. The social contract is, therefore, the constitution which outlines the legal basis of the state as a moral, political and economic institution and the rights and duties of the citizens within, and the state's responsibilities and obligations towards citizens. The concept of the social contract, as defined and discussed by Locke and Rousseau, shed interesting light upon the phenomenon of modern day constitutions. The constitution, as may be deduced from these theories, is the contract between the government, the state and the ruler and the people. It outlines the duties owed by the ruler to the people and the rights and freedoms of the people within the limits of the law. More importantly, as with any contract, there is a legal obligation to respect it. Indeed, as both Locke and Rousseau concluded, should the ruler violate the terms of the contract, the contract is no longer applicable and the ruler's governance is illegitimate. Accordingly, we may similarly conclude that if a government violates the terms of the constitution, the government becomes illegitimate. It is quite interesting to consider a national constitution as a contract which both parties, citizens and governments, are legally obliged to abide by. It becomes even more interesting when we consider that the violation of the terms of the constitution on the part of the government/ruler, renders that ruler/government illegitimate. This is simply because, were we to apply this as a basic rule, the Egyptian government will, in essence, emerge as an illegitimate entity; an institution which, insofar as it neither abides by constitutional guarantees pertaining to the rights and freedoms of citizens, and constitutional limitations on its authority, has violated the Articles of the Egyptian Constitution. Through an analysis of the provisions of the Egyptian Constitution regarding the equality of citizens and their equal right to political, economic and civil liberties, the research shall initially establish that the constitution defines Egyptian citizens as equal, and endows them with equal political, economic and civil rights. Upon the analysis of the rights awarded minority groups in Egypt, such as Copts and women, the research shall establish that, insofar as they are denied equality, they are effectively denied that which the constitution has guaranteed them. The conclusion to this research shall review the implications of this as regards the legitimacy of the government. 1 The Egyptian Constitution's Provisions on Equality The Egyptian Consti

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Macbeth Apperance vs Reality Essay Example for Free

Macbeth Apperance vs Reality Essay The world is governed more by appearances than by realities. Throughout society people are judged based on their appearance. This is unfortunate because appearance can be deceiving. In William Shakespeare’s play Macbeth appearances are not what they seem. Some people may change because they think that their true self does not fit in society while others pretend to be something they are not. In the theme of appearance versus reality Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have an image but as the time passes by their true personalities began to show. Macbeth portrays himself differently from his true inner self. He pretends to be a strong and intelligent person but from inside he is weak and indecisive. When Macbeth first confronts the witches’ prophecies he says, â€Å"Come what may, time and the hour runs through the roughest day† (1. 3. 152-153). Macbeth is leaving his future to ‘chance’. He wants to appear noble and strong but in the end he refutes his statement by killing Duncan and Banquo to get to the throne. Also, when Lady Macbeth explains the plan to Macbeth he asks â€Å"If we should fail? † (1. 7. 59). He is still afraid of the consequences of his actions. His actions look pungent but he does not have any reason to kill Duncan. Macbeth has a debate within himself to murder King Duncan or to spare his life. Macbeth hesitation to kill Duncan proves in realty he is a weak man. Lady Macbeth represents herself as a beautiful and powerful woman in society but she is as weak as her husband Macbeth. To convince Macbeth to follow the plan she says â€Å"I have given suck, and know how tender ’tis to love the babe that milks me. I would, while it was smiling in my face, have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I so sworn† (1. 7. 54-58). Macbeth asks for her help, but she responds by being harsh to him to keep up her appearances. Even when Macbeth sees Banquo’s ghost, instead of helping him, she tells him to go to bed and stop imagining weird things. Lady Macbeth appears heartless toward others. However, one night a gentlewomen and a doctor see her sleep waking and mumbling â€Å"Out, damned spot! Out, I say! (5. 1. 25). She appears to be wide awake but she is unconsciously revealing her true self. Her guilty conscious leads to her downfall through suicide. In this scene her appearance crumbles. She seemed powerful and unsympathetic, but in reality her guilt of Duncan’s murder driver her crazy proving she has become weak. In Macbeth the theme of appearance versus reality is shown through the characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. They both revealed a fictitious picture of their personality even though on the inside they are different people. Macbeth’s indecisive personality leads to his destruction. The iron lady, Lady Macbeth appears to be a tough woman, who feels no guilt. But in the ending she shatters to pieces because of her guilt-ridden conscious. No matter what one appears to be reality will defeat appearance. People can put disguise on reality for time being but in the end truth reveals itself.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Hrm is more important in current economic climate business essay

Hrm is more important in current economic climate business essay The main purpose of this essay is to examine how the existing or present economic situation which led to firms trying to beat each other in business has made the role of HRM significant in achieving business success. In evaluating this statement, Armstrong (2003) sees the main role of HRM in this present economic climate as being how to carefully devise a plan of action which will be used to achieve a goal, as well as the logical way through which business organisations can manage their employees through HRM so as to achieve business success. The author of this essay observed that in this current economic climate, countries such as the United States, United Kingdom etc. are recovering from depression and inflation which led to loss of so many jobs, and increased competition in the recruitment process, thereby making it possible for HRM functions to be more important in order to achieve business success (source: Survey of Global HR Challenges, 2005). While Pendleton (2011) argued that in the face of this current economic climate, if HRM functions are not properly implemented people will be losing good jobs with better pay due to downsizing in different organisations and start taking up jobs with lesser pay because economic climate will detect salary/pay to be received by employees. McKenna and Beech (2008) emphasise that these HRM functions include; recruitment which involves the proper advertisement of job so as to attract the proper/right applicants, then comes the selection of the best candidates among all the candidates that applied for the job, and proper training of the employee is said to add value to them and the work they do so as to bring about business organisation success and on the other hand, the employees will be rewarded accordingly for their contribution to the growth of the organisation. Armstrong (2003) further indicated that the main aim of HRM is to gain business success in an organisation through the people employed in that business organisation. Som (2008) implied that HRM functions will ensure that organisations attract, retain, motivate and also develop its human resources in accordance with the organisations demand. Ulrich and Brockbank (2005) argued that HRM plays an important role in seeing that every business organisation achieves success through the proper implementation of its functions, and by applying those functions with the necessary information technology system such as the internet. Wachira (2010) suggested that HR managers ought to apply new technologies that will enable them communicate easily with other managers in the organisation so as to reduce the cost incurred during recruitment and also select the proper candidate for a particular job. Though in some developing countries, organisations may not have the technical capability to handle this t ype of recruitment and selection process and this will negatively affect such organisations (Source: CIPD survey report, 2007). It is being argued that there are challenges encountered by HR managers in the day to day management of human resources in an organisation which may result from political, environmental, economic as well as social effects, and this is said to be because of the high level of responsibility bestowed on the HR manager in this current economic situation (source: Survey of global HR challenges, 2005). Jackson and Schuler (1995) sees these as external environmental pressures which can be positive or negative, such as tax exemptions and conducive business environment used to encourage local businesses and allow them to compete favourably in business with their counterpart from other countries so as to enable them retain their existing manpower/employees through their HRM functions or political instability/uprising which discourage foreign organisations/companies from investing in a country thereby creating unemployment, affecting business success and the countrys economic growth negatively. Brewster et al (2005) also argued that in most developed countries of the world such as United Kingdom, United states etc. HRM functions will definitely be affected by political, legal, and social environmental pressure/factors either positively or negatively. This is said to be due to the fact that every business organisation operates under the framework of the law in the environment where the business is located. For example, in Libya, international companies such as British Petroleum (BP) is being affected by political and social unrest in that country, this has affected the operation of so many other companies in Libya and on the other hand reduced business success and government revenue, while Japanese car manufacturing companies in United Kingdom are all doing well and achieving business success due to the favourable political, social and legal environment they established their organisation (source: BBC news, 22/02/2011). Som (2008) argued that the positive performance of an o rganisation in this current economic situation will depend mostly on HRM functions of staff selection, training/development and incentives/compensation. Beardwell and Holden (2001) observed that before now some changes took place in the economic situation of the United Kingdom (UK) in relation to how people are being employed to work, in compliment to what is obtainable in the United States (US). This is said to be caused by economic pressure existing at that period which resulted from increase in competition, recession, and emergence of new technology, which on the other hand created employment, increased employee training and development so as to enable them master the new technology, which will improve their skill and also enable the organisation achieve business success. Though Kinnie et al (2000) argued that the inability of HR managers to properly train its employees will lead to low productivity and low customer satisfaction which will also affect business success and employee relationship with the organisation negatively. Beardwell and Holden (2001) also emphasise that increased competition tried to change the old method of H R and this made it possible for organisations to develop a new method of employment that will be employer friendly/oriented. This policy helped in directing the method of recruitment and selection so as to employ the right people needed for the organisation to arrive at its business success. Although it is also observed that this method of employment will lead to unemployment because very few people with the required skills will be employed by the organisation. Kulkarni (2008) implied that increased competition and globalisation has made it possible for most organisations to adopt uninterrupted learning and training of its employees through the human resource management department. This is said to enable the organisation to satisfy its employees and customers needs and on the other hand achieve business success. Notwithstanding the continuous learning and training adopted by most organisations, Varma (2008) argued that some organisations now concentrate more on what to gain from an employee without considering how to add value to such employee through training and development. It is then emphasised that an organisations aim should be directed towards employee and customer satisfaction through purposeful HRM strategy implementation which will result to profit maximisation as well as business success for such organisation McKenna and beach (2008) emphasized that at the beginning of the economic recession of the 1980s which changed the role of trade unions resulting to little or no strike action, made it possible for organisations to be able to change their staff with ease. This is not only said to be caused by unemployment and recession but also from the introduction of some new laws that reduced the power of trade unions by controlling strike action, which is said to have affected business success negatively because employees will not be motivated to give their best. It is being argued by Deen and Giri (2008) that employees are the biggest assets of an organisation and should be encouraged and motivated through the organisations HRM activities/functions which can provide emotional support, training and development, financial rewards etc. that will make it possible for the employees to do their work with full commitment. This is argued to result to organisations business success because the employees will feel valued and being cared for, thereby contributing positively to the organisation. McKenna and Beech (2008) also noted that the weakness in the power of trade unions is said to signal the need for less elaborate process in collective bargaining and conflict management, which also resulted in a faster way of negotiating settlement of wages. In addition to the foregoing, organisations were better positioned to make changes in work practices which resulted into an increase in productivity as well as a decrease in the number of people employed. Changes in the practice of HR were observed because of the large pool of available labour. A good example is said to be the emphasis being switched from recruitment to selection, which led to the selection of the right people for the job so as to achieve business success which will on the other hand increase unemployment because not every applicant will be selected. It is being argued by McKenna and Beech (2008) that the reduced volume of negotiations which is based on collective bargaining between labour unions and human resource specialists, including the reduction in time committed to recruitment and selection, which helped to provide HRM with the opportunities to manage employee layoff programmes and enter into negotiations so as to bring about low wage settlements, and this is said not to favour employees because of the low wage they will be receiving and it will also discourage them from giving their best to the work they do. Goel (2008) emphasise that in this current economic situation, HRM will require a cybernetic scheme of information management so as to enable an organisation gather, store, examine and disseminate information that concerns the organisations human resource management functions of recruitment and selection so as to help the organisation manage employee redundancy and negotiation programmes. Though, Goel (2008) also argu ed that without a good human resource management information system, an organisation will find it difficult to access information about its employees both old and new, as well as those seeking to work for the organisation. It is then said that an organisation will choose a HRM information system that will satisfy its information management needs if such an organisation wants to achieve business success. Davi (2008) contend that increased competition has made the role of HRM to be faced with challenges of handling management modification, managing organisational culture, dealing with leadership training and growth, measuring the strength of HRM and employee environment, designing employee engagement, dismissal as well as compensation. And to take care of these challenges, Pinnington and Edwards (2000) advised that HR managers should try and discover the main problems, analyse it and provide solutions to it through the use of HRM and performance strategies. McKenna and Beech (2008) argued that in considering organisation of reasonable size, which implies a big organisation, it is possible to find a HRM function just as one would expect to see in a finance or marketing function where specialisation of duties exists and the management team tries as much as possible to achieve organisational goal/objective. While in the smaller organisation, it is said that the level of specialisation may not prevail because the HRM function is being performed by the manager who handles HRM matters. It is observed by the author that the big organisation where specialisation exists will tend to achieve more business success than the small organisation with no specialisation. Though, it is being argued by Bhattacharya (2008) that it will be improper for human resource department of any organisation whether big or small, to assure employees of retaining them in the organisation when such employees are being seen for example by the accounts department as a lia bility. Therefore, Pendleton (2011) emphasise that the HRM department should work hand-in-hand with other departments in the organisation so as to determine employees that can be classified as asset to the organisation and retain those employees because they will help the organisation in achieving business success. According to McKenna and Beech (2008) human resource planning process is concerned with the function of matching organisational demand for quantity and quality of employees with the available supply. This demand is said to be derived from the current and forecast level of company operations, while the supply side is said to consist of human resources that is available both internally and externally. Foot and Hook (2005) observed that an organisation unmistakeably needs to be sure that they have the right staff so as to attain the needed level of competitiveness. These staff are said to be employed by the organisation through their recruitment process by assessing their internal human resource supply. This is said to involve a process through which an organisation takes into account the number of its employees as well as their duties and responsibilities, including their skills so as to enable the organisation compete favourably in order to achieve business success. McKenna and Beech (2008) argued that the internal supply consists of the exiting workforce and its potential to contribute to business success, which has been a target for systematisation in recent years. While the external supply is said to reside in the population outside the organisation and it is influenced by demographic trends, developments in education as well as competitive forces in the labour market, and this is said to be observed within the European Union (EU) where competition is common because every organisation want to achieve business success. McKenna and Beech (2008) emphasise that prior to staff recruitment, job analysis is undertaken, and this is said to involve examining the work to be undertaken by a candidate which results in the preparation of a job description, which produces a specification about the attributes a suitable candidate will need so as to perform the job. McKenna and Beech (2008) also implied that a variety of techniques such as the application form, interviews, tests and assessment centres are all available in selecting the best candidates from a pool of applications. It is mentioned that a shortlist of applicants will be produced as a first step in the selection process which will then lead to training of the applicants, and it is concerned with establishing what type of training is required and to which applicant so as to add value to the candidates and also achieve business success as the candidates work for the organisation. It is further emphasised by Kulkarni (2008) that notwithstanding the bene fits of organisations recruitment, learning and training through HRM, employees are said to be faced with tension of accomplishing business goal/objective in this current economic climate than ever before. Also employees are said to be facing the problem of having to do more work as a result of the training given to them. Although, it is said that some organisations though their HRM can take care of these problems by conducting stress management seminars and training on how to cope with tension at the workplace (Pendleton, 2011). Armstrong (2003) explained that HRM functions will bring about an integrated approach towards the development of human resource strategies or plans which will enable an organisation to achieve its goals thereby leading to success in the organisations business, but when the strategy is not properly implemented the business may collapse. Organisation strategy according to Foot and Hook (2005) are said to function with those plans of action that an organisation makes so as to take care of future occurrences and these plans are targeted at answering the basic economic question of what to do as well as how to do it. Armstrong (2003) on the other hand sees strategic HRM function as an approach used in making decisions on the intentions and plans of the organisation as it concerns the employment relationship as well as the organisations recruitment, training, development, performance management, reward and employee relations strategies, policies and practices, which if not properly implemen ted will result in business failure. According to Nachimuthu (2008) increased competition in the face of the current economic climate has made it possible for organisations that share some business strategy in common to merger together and become one organisation so as to enable them achieve more business success. Nachimuthu (2008) further implied that HR plays a vital role when organisations want to go into merger and acquisition, and the HR function is said to involve retaining some of the existing employees that will be considered as asset to the organisation through the use of HRM strategies to carry out employee assessment that will select and integrate them into the new organisation. Foot and Hook (2005) also emphasise that in order to ensure success in the business of any organisation, HRM strategy must be incorporated in all other departments of an organisation such as finance department, sales department, marketing department etc. and they must work hand-in-hand with the human resource department in the aspect of recruitment, manpower development and training so as to achieve business success. Not only is HR functions beneficial during merger and acquisition, but also it is being argued by Nachimuthu (2008) that when two organisations or more merge together, HRM will be faced with the problem of organisations cultural integration, communication between employees, appraisal and selection of managers/leaders, keeping of valuable employees as well as how to carry out compensation and welfare program in the newly formed organisation. Though, it is emphasised by Pinnington and Edwards (2000) that these problems can be taken care of or solved through a well-planned and implemented HRM strategy which will involve selection of the right employees, performance, appraisal, development and rewards. Hutchinson and Purcell (2003) noted that strategic HRM is functional through focusing on actions that differentiate a business organisation from its competitors. While on the other hand, Armstrong (2003) said that it develops a declaration of purpose which defines the means to achieve ends, and it is concerned with the long term allocation of significant company resources as well as matching those resources and capabilities to the external environment. Strategy is therefore said to serve as a perspective on the way in which critical issues or success factors can be addressed, and this strategic decisions is aimed at making a major and long-term impact on the behaviour and success of the organisation (Armstrong, 2003). According to Armstrong (2003), when considering strategic HRM, it is said to be necessary to address the extent to which human resource strategic measures should take into account the interest of all the stakeholders in an organisation, employees in general, as well as the owners and management. Storeys (2007), argued that soft strategic HRM places more emphasize on how to manage people in terms of ensuring them employment security, training, development and work benefits etc. while Hard Strategic HRM on the other hand will consider the benefit to be derived by investing in human resources in the interest of the business achieving its business success. In this situation, a well-planned soft and hard strategic HRM will guarantee business success in the sense that organisational objectives/directions, its choice of employees and how they are managed will be considered (Legge, 2005). Armstrong (2003) also emphasise that the rationale for strategic HRM is the perceived advantage of having an agreed as well as understood basis for developing approaches to people in the longer term, and this will enable an organisation achieve competitive advantage by allowing such an organisation to utilize its opportunities. On the other hand, Hamel and Prahalad (1998) argued that a firm cannot achieve competitive advantage unless the firm develop its human resource by training them so that they can learn more work techniques which they will use in working for the firm so as to beat their competitors. It is also said that one of the clear benefits that will arise from competitive advantage as a result of effective management of people is that such an advantage is hard to imitate by an organisations competitors (Pendleton, 2011). Organisations strategies, policies and practices are said to be a unique blend of processes, procedures, personalities, styles, capabilities and organisational culture, which differentiates what the business organisation supplies to its customers from those supplied by its competitors and it is said to be achieved by having human resource strategies which ensures that the firm has higher quality people than its competitors (Armstrong, 2003). Organisations challenges can be handled by redefining HRM strategies so as to sustain competitive advantage on investment in human resources, by so doing HR managers must have the core competence to deal with changes in economic situations, social effects and technology which affects the organisation by being able to discover important issues affecting the organisation and providing solutions through development and training (Source: Survey of global HR challenges, 2005). It is being emphasised by Armstrong (2003) that the aim of a resource-based approach to HRM is to improve resource capability by achieving fit between resources and opportunities as well as obtaining added value from the effective deployment of resources. Cesyniene (2008) noted that recruitment process will definitely be challenging in some fields where there is existence of dearth skills in the labour market. Armstrong (2003) also observed that in line with the intellectual capital theory used to analyse HRM, the resource-based theory of HRM emphasise that investment in people adds to their value to the firm or organisation. Therefore the author understands that when an organisation invests in its employees by training them for example, they tend to add value to the organisation by working to achieve business success for that particular organisation. More so Boxall (2011) argued that it is by hiring and developing more talented staff and by extending their skills base that an organi sation will achieve success in its business. It has been observed that a resource-based strategy for HRM is therefore concerned with the enhancement of the intellectual capital of the firm/organisation, which implies that seeing a business firm in terms of what it is capable of doing may offer a more durable basis for strategy in HRM than considering the needs which the business seeks to satisfy (Armstrong, 2003). The author of this essay tends to emphasise that a business can achieve success if it has the strategic capabilities/or plans to compete favourably with others in the same line of business not minding the present economic situation. Cesyniene (2008) argued that the deficiency in the number of qualified workers as well as increase competition will make it possible for HR managers to change from Hard to Soft HRM which will put into consideration the needs of employees so as to sustain competitive advantage. While Kamoche (2000) explained that the basis of this resource capability approach to HR strategy will be the reco gnition of the available manpower in the organisation, which is claimed that it will develop and provide a single model for strategic HRM to function better. Although Jackson and Schuler (1995) also argued that in this situation, firms will try to gain competitive advantage by using human resources through development and training in order to add value to their employees so as to match the nature of the organisations relationships with their customers and employees. According to Armstrong (2003) the key feature of strategic HRM function is the concept of fit or integration, which is also known as matching model. Malik (2009) explained that this matching model helps to bring about strategic integration in an organisation, by combining HRM strategic functions and organisations strategy together and channelling them towards the same strategic direction in order to achieve business success when they are being implemented. Legge (2005) argued that organisation strategy and strategic HRM sometimes does not seem to be appropriate to each others context. A good example can be seen in the downsizing exercise undertaken by some organisations during the last economic meltdown or recession which is not in contrast with human resource management strategy and it discouraged employees thereby bringing about poor performance of such an organisation (Pendleton, 2011). Bowen and Ostroff (2004) argued that merely having good HRM policies is unlikely to be sufficient enough to motivate employees and derive organisational performance so as to achieve business success; hence there is the need to go beyond HRM content and consider HRM process. Fey (2000) suggested that organisations ought to concentrate on HRM patterns of employee development and training at all levels of its management and employees. McKenna and Beech (2008) implied that HRM functions must have the purpose of meeting organisational objectives which will lead to enhancing service provision to its customers, quality, profitability or efficiency of its services/goods. Though, Fey (2000) also argued that there is no relationship existing between HRM Practices and organisational performance in relation to employee training and development. Therefore in this current economic climate, Hutchinson and Purcell (2003) observed that increased competition has really made the HRM functions more important to the success of business than ever before. This is said to be because of the fact that HRM now covers the activities of recruitment and employment which calls for the proper selection of those to be employed, manpower planning involving management of the available work force, employee training and management development resulting to coaching, training and guidance which add value to employees so as to support them on taking more responsibilities, organisational planning and development that helps to achieve organisation effectiveness, wage and salary administration through management and monitoring reward in the organisation and also recognising employee contribution, health and safety benefits and services which helps to maintain work-life balance by building a good working relationship between the organisation and the emplo yee, union management relations and personnel research which may result to outsourcing so as to obtain service from an outside supplier either to train its employees or work for the organisation (Hutchinson and Purcell, 2003). By taking closer look at these HRM functions, Pinnington and Edwards (2000) stressed that there has been an increase on the functions given to the HR manager unlike before, and if these functions or responsibilities are well implemented by the HR manager, there will be a tendency in which the success of the business organisation will definitely be arrived at and the business organisation will grow in all ramification. But the author observed that in a situation where these functions are being neglected, business success may not be achieved and the business will suffer.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Computer Technology :: Argumentative Technological Computer papers

Computer Technology I. Introduction Over the past few decades, the advances of computer technology have undoubtedly increased the rate of information exchange. Communication across the globe is now done with ease, convenience, and speed. Accessing online bank accounts, instant messaging, online auctions, and communication via electronic email are just few examples of normal transactions that occur today. Although these advances have provided a tremendous positive impact on our society, it has also caused some controversial ethical issues, namely the privacy of personal information. Computers have been used as a tool to invade personal privacy for various purposes such as direct marketing, the sharing and selling of consumer information, and government surveillances. Furthermore, the advent of the Internet as an infrastructure of connected computers has been used to exchange non-public personal information to unknown parties. As a result, privacy concerns have risen as computer technology rapidly becomes pervasive. Beca use of the depth and many facets of the privacy of personal information, this research paper focuses on the privacy of consumer information. II. Current State on the Usage of Consumer Information Consumer information is used for a wide variety of applications. Typical usage of consumer information today include target selling/marketing, sharing databases, and the credit bureau's use of consumer information to gauge personal credit ratings. Businesses may obtain consumer information from various sources such as customer questionnaires, surveys, commercial transactions, web activity, application forms, and many more. Personal consumer information gathered from these examples are then used by businesses to customize marketing efforts, data mine consumer databases to recognize buying patterns, and evaluate credit risks of applicants. A few examples of the kinds of information collection and usage practices are: An automobile dealership's web site offers help to consumers in rebuilding their credit ratings. To take advantage of this offer, consumers are urged to provide their name, address, social security number, and telephone number through the web site's online information form. Consumer information may then be sold or shared to other automobile dealerships to provide specific, targeted offers for the consumer. A mortgage company operates an online pre-qualification service for home loans. The online application form requires that each potential borrower provide his or her name, social security number, home and business telephone numbers, e-mail address, previous address, type of loan sought, current and former employer's name and address, length of employment, income, sources of funds to be applied toward closing, and approximate total in savings.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

the misappropriation of events :: essays research papers

The Misappropriation of the events that took place on December 27, 2001 The following report is based solely on the opinions and the feelings of the author and contains vague and dry statements about the education system, school system, those judging, and the institution that we call learning and how it has been affected by this unfortunate incident. For you the reader, I have broken this document down into six ( 6 ) parts. Education System School System Those Judging Learning The law Conclusion and reference Section 1: Education System My education and my fellow assailants education has proven to be a very productive thing in our careers as students. We are all seniors in highschool and we will all be going off to college next year to pursue our futures and continue to expand our minds with learning. It is said that education is the best tool that a person can have under hisher belt and can be used to build the "houses of life". My house of life was looking rather alright until that December day when the "criminals" were captured. ( I say criminals and I express that with captions because that is how the school is treating us†¦ like cold hard criminals ). My education as well as the other three is looking like it is about to hit the rocks right now. I will explain a little more about how it will hit the rocks when I focus on the School System section. I don’t give our system of education any haste in this day and time because the youth of America are being taught all about the world and learning to cope with other cultures as more and more flow in to our country. But they are also being taught about the terrible things that happen in our society ( i.e. crime ). Crime is where we come in. Just a couple of kids, having some fun, spray painting a stupid school. It is just a rivalry thing and we were caught smack dab right in the middle of it all. I know that this section is supposed to be about the education system that we have but it will also be a brief overview of everything that happened. I really don’t feel like scrolling all the way back up to the top of this page to add another section so you will have to bear with me on this one.